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GBVIMS narrative report of 2020

Key highlights:

  • Majority of the incidents are reported by married, female, adult survivors, and are mostly perpetrated by the spouse at home.
  • Decreasing trend of incidents reported by the IDPs vis-à-vis the increasing trend of the incidents reported by host community and returnees due to the closure of IDP camps, and increased presence of GBV actors in out of camp settings and areas of return.
  • Increasing number of reported incidents, possibly due to increased GBV risks arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, conflict related displacement, closure of camps, lack of access to livelihood, and perceived affiliation to extremists fueled by pre-existing risks arising from negative social norms and gender inequalities.
  • A third of survivors previously reported GBV due to recurrence of domestic violence incidents.
  • Psychological/emotional abuse is the commonly reported GBV type in the context of domestic violence as well as cyber related GBV incidents.
  • Increasing trend of survivors living with disabilities reporting GBV possibly due to increased GBV risks or a key result of awareness raising on reporting for timely services.
  • Majority of the reported incidents were perpetrated by males aged 26 and 40, suggesting the link between age and power in the process of socialization and negative masculinity attitudes.
  • Majority of the survivors reporting GBV require psychosocial services, and decline referrals to legal, safety and security services due to stigma, fear of retaliation like honor killing, victim blaming, and pressure from the family not to report the incidents.
  • The data reiterates the link between livelihood as a mitigating measure for GBV, given that the daily laborers and unemployed persons perpetrated the majority of the reported incidents.
  • Consistent gap in livelihood and safe house services since 2018.

Recommendations:

  • Scale up multi-sectoral services in out of camp settings, areas of return and other underserved areas, including access to livelihood, safe shelter services, and safety and security services in areas of return.
  • Scale up awareness raising against all forms of GBV, timely reporting for timely services, and information dissemination on the available services using innovative approaches.
  • Capacity development of service providers and duty bearers like the police on GBV guiding principles in order to enhance utilization of the services.
  • Advocate for legislative reforms in order to enhance the protective environment. For example, legislations on cyber violence, enactment and enforcement of anti-domestic violence law; amendment of Iraqi Penal Code like articles 41 & 393 (1), & Criminal Code No. 111.
  • Regular updating of the harmonized multi-sectoral referral pathways for timely referral and coordination for multi-sectoral services for the survivors based on their needs.